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Energy Explained: J = A/m
The Creation (ToS 8 - 9)


How Can I Even Consider Disposing kg – the Unit of Mass?

I’ve been stating as the most astonishing consequence of the ToS, that kg is not a base (SI)-unit, instead kg = As2/m3. It is enough with s (seconds), m (meters), A (ampere, where charge is As or C) – We don’t need kg (kilogram for mass).

From those who have looked into the ToS – I have gotten the very relevant question/requests: (1) How can I even consider such a crazy thing – Please explain, Overview-level or at least Top to down! (I will try); (2) Are you sure? (Yes!), (3) Can you prove it? (Yes!), (4) Are you crazy? (I dunno…) 

It is about which of the fundamental qualities are and what is created “by mechanisms”. We are used to having time (s), length (m), current (A, or Charge As=C) and mass (kg) as fundamental qualities – Now I say mass (kg) is a mechanism, not a fundamental quality. Everything beyond the fundamental qualities, from e.g. simple speed (m/s) to the most complex a human, are created by mechanism and it should be possible to express their more complex qualities with the units (s, m…) that are used for the fundamental qualities.  As a result of the ToS, kg = As2/m3 and mass is not a fundamental quality – Mass is a mechanism.

The mechanism generating mass is 
fully explained in the ToS section 4.3.
Einstein showed that gravity is a mechanism. It is not a fundamental quality of an object - The mechanism is that space-time curves around an object. Mysterious, yes, but the ToS even explains the underlying mechanism of this curving!

The Higgs mechanism (Wikipedia: “particles gain mass by interacting with the Higgs field that permeates all space” and the Higgs field is quite like the Grid) is believed to give mass to particles, BUT then mass then stays in a particle as a fundamental quality, with the kg is a base unit.

In the ToS, the Grid room (ToS section 4.3) is the mechanism of mass generation and it stays a mechanism – It has no “symmetry breaking” that changes the laws of physics and nails mass into a particle, like in the Standard Model.

The proof, then:

Planck’s (reduced) constant, 1.0546x10-34 m2kg/s is the foundation of quantum mechanics and its existence and value is already proved over and over again in many experiments – and you always get the same value 1.0546x10-34 m2kg/s.

Simply assuming that there is “Something” filling up space at the distance dn=10.15 pm (which happens to be the negtrinos in the Grid, but Quantum Mechanics can equally well call it harmonic oscillators), a yet undiscovered relation gives Planck’s constant as: 
  

Put in the values of permittivity, ɛ0, a fundamental electrical constant, the electron charge e and the recently discovered dark energy density in the universe (details in ToS 6.1) and you get 1.0546x10-34 As/m.

Same value – You don’t get that by accident! – but As/m instead of m2kg/s!? But if we replace kg with As2/m3  it all makes sense again.

Proof 1: If you believe all the vast experiments in Quantum Mechanics has proved the existence of Planck’s constant and that the dark energy really have the value estimated through WMAP’s 7 years data, then this is proof that kg = As2/m3!

Proof 2: Simply rewrite the Plank’s constant equation above as: DarkEnergyDensity/NegtrinoDensity*Permittivity(ɛ0)/NegtrinoCharge, you see the meaning of Planck’s constant as the dark energy per negtrino and revolution!
Where the negtrino a) has 1/3 of the electron charge and b) are spaced 10.15 pm in the Grid!

Proof 3 (sketch only): With such high charge density in the Grid, we would get 10100 times more energy in the Grid than the dark energy, due to the repelling electrostatic forces. Can’t be! – We need balancing attracting forces. Section 3.1.1 in the ToS gives the negtrino a magnetic moment of 1930 µB. That corresponds to a magnetic energy of 1/9 of the electron mass converted to energy (ToS 3.1.2).

I would say that both the disposal of mass and the existence of a particle – the negtrino – with charge e/3, with magnetic energy mec2/9 and spaced 10.15 pm apart is proved or at least made very, very likely.



Energy Explained - It is Magnetic Moment Density!

Energy – the “number of something” that cannot be created or destroyed, but converted into different forms – is essential in the reality we live in. But what is the underlying mechanism? It is said that energy is mass via the universal speed of light, c – Einstein’s mass energy equivalencE=mc2. However, mass is just one form that energy shows up as (ToS 4.3.6) – It is not the general underlying mechanism of energy. 

After the ToS discovery that mass is a mechanism (ToS 4.3) – not a quality of a particle – that has a profound impact of our understanding of the reality we live in. The consequence, that kg we thought was a base unit, really is the same as As2/m3, also simplifies most other quantities. In ToS 6.2 I provide a table of the new units after kg is exchanged for As2/m3. The unit for energy J comes out as A/m instead m2kg/s2 (or VAs)!

It is generally understood and accepted that charge cannot be created or destroyed (unless in pairs of opposite polarity). But the elementary charge particle (the negtrino) also has another quality – magnetic moment – because the charge is rotating. (The magnetic moment is the strength of a magnet.) While the charge is 1/3 of the electron charge, the magnetic momentum is 1930 times larger than the electron’s (mn = 1.79x10-20 Am2 or 1930 Bohr magneton (ToS 3.1.1.1).
Since the elementary particle cannot be created or destroyed, both its charge and magnetic moment remain, but the magnetic moment between several negtrinos can be cancelled out, as in a composed particle. The magnetic moment, being a vector quantity, can also be redirected as in the mass mechanisms.

Since the magnetic energy in the Grid provides a very strong, almost constant negtrino density, the magnetic energy that is holding the Grid together (and balancing the electrostatic repelling energy) is a good candidate for the underlying mechanism of energy conservation.

Magnetic moment is created by electrical current surrounding an area and is measured in Am2. Its density is Am2/m3=A/m, which is our new unit of energy in ToS!


The elementary negtrino particle has charge and magnetic moment (since the charge is rotating). The density of that second quality – Am2 per m3 – when the negtrino is making up space in the Grid or else, is the energy (measured in J=A/m in instead of kgm2/s2). That is our energy that can be converted, but not created or destroyed.

When the negtrino density is in balance between the repelling electrostatic forces and attracting magnetic forces (ToS 3.1.1), the magnetic moment density can be regarded as a reference level of energy, from which energy locally can be increased or decreased.


Mass and gravity are examples of relocation of energy. The mass mechanism (ToS 4.3) results in a negtrino density increase inside the Grid room: The magnetic moment density – energy – is increased. That energy is taken from the gravity field where the negtrino density is decreased: The magnetic moment density is reduced outside the of the Grid room, representing negative energy.

The binding energy of the composed particle core does not show up as mass (ToS 4.3.2), but the magnetic moment of each negtrino is used to hold the core together (the magnetic strong force) and shows only a small residue magnetic moment outside the core. It is the high internal magnetic moment density that is the binding energy of the particle (that does not show up as mass).

We have used Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence to calculate the charge increase that we see as mass: mc2 = ½QV0, i.e. Q = 2mc2/V0. V0 then comes from the dark energy (ToS 5.2), which in itself is represented by a small negtrino – and thus magnetic moment - density increase in the universe.

Another example is gravitational potential energy (W = mgh). The source of a gravity field is reduced negtrino density outside the Grid room of an object (ToS 4.3.1 and 5.5). If you move another object in that varying negtrino density, its size will change since the size of atoms (the distance to its electrons) is determined by the negtrino density in the Grid. The object’s size decrease will increase its magnetic moment density – an energy increase - when getting further from the gravity generating object. That is part of the moved object’s potential energy increase.

Particle decay is one more example. The binding energy released when a particle is split, is the release of the magnetic moment that held the pieces of the particle together via the strong magnetic force. The released magnetic moment will make a negtrino in the Grid rotate generating the same magnetic moment – That is a photon (ToS 3.1.3) created with the energy that was released in the decay!

And of course the photon energy itself, E=hf, is increased magnet moment density. Rotating a particle with additional charge will of course cause magnetic moment, which density is the energy from the rotation.

Other forms of energy should also result from a magnet moment density change as the underlying mechanism.

The Laws of Physics Getting Obvious in the ToS…

Looking at Force as “current-flow” and Momentum as “charge-flow”, Newton’s second law of motion, F=ma that never has been derived before, becomes almost trivial.

F=ma is known to be equivalent to that the force is equal to the time rate of change of the momentum, but can now be understood as: The current flow is equal to the time rate of change of the charge flow. That also relates well to how F=ma was derived in ToS 5.4.2. An electrician could simply explain F=ma by saying: If you want to change the charge flowing through an area, you need to change the current you send through that area each second.

Now we also can understand energy as the magnetic moment density, provided by the negtrinos in the Grid.

The ToS view also goes well with Einstein’s curved space-time around matter in his general theory of relativity (ToS 4.3.5). Gravity is reduced charge density around matter (ToS 3.3 and 5.5) and the very size of the atom – the distance from its nucleus to its electrons – is determined by the distance between the negtrinos in the Grid (the density) (ToS 4.5.1). The actual size of all material things, including rulers, the reference meter, etc. will change with the negtrino density in the Grid. Space, which is made up by the Grid of negtrinos, does curve around matter!




The Creation

God Said to Nothing:

I name you Charge.
I give you time and three room dimensions.
You have a choice. You can be good or evil; positive or negative.

If you show your strength, you get the Force: 



where:  



and:  













May the Force be with you!


That's it! Or does it have to be more complicated?
/G.D. Tosman

17 comments:

  1. What is so difficult to take, if the big bang ocured then everything was energy to start and we are only looking at substances we call mass rather than the other 95% of the Universe.

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    1. But WHAT IS ENERGY that can take so many different forms, but that cannot be destroyed or created? How can light (photons) turn up as mass and vice versa, for example? I tried to address the underlying mechanism - Has anyone heard an explanation before?

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    2. What is a photon?

      I have seen photons described in may ways, but the simplest is a resonate electrostatic charge and magnetic field (also known as an electromagnetic wave). A photon is created when a charged particle changes from a higher energy state to a lower energy state and contains the energy of the transition. A photon is absorbed to force a charged particle to a higher energy state. Note that the change in energy states also includes the physical movement of the particle in its matrix which explains the acceleration noted in experiments.

      James

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  2. It seems you chose the negtrino pitch arbitrarily - indeed who is to say it was not chosen so that your equation balanced? Why not instead for instance chose the radius of a proton or for instance the Plank length? Is there any other reason to suggest the negtrino pitch is what you state it is?
    Furthermore if the Universe is filled with a cubic lattice of subatomic particles, then like a crystal its physical properties should depend on its orientation. However one of the fundamental laws of physics is "Conservation of Angular Momentum" which is aligned with the laws of physics do not change as you change direction. Are you suggesting then, that at least at the quantum level angular momentum is not conserved? If this is true then perhaps this can be detected in spectroscopy due to perturbations in the energies of electrons orbiting atoms.

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    1. Q: It seems you chose the negtrino pitch arbitrarily - indeed who is to say it was not chosen so that your equation balanced?

      10 pm distance between the negtrinos is of course not only from the dark energy per negtrino and revolution making up Planck’s constant. It also comes from the Atom calculations in ToS 4.5.1 and the maximum density of atomic matter in ToS 4.5.6 (which Osmium reaches to 99.7%). 10 pm also matches the calculation of the Grid in equilibrium when charge is 1/3 e and magnetic energy is 1/9 of the electron mass (ToS 3.1.1). I addition, the photon energy E=hf carried from negtrino to negtrino also gives this distance between the negtrinos, see the ToS Summary 2.3.1.

      Q: Furthermore if the Universe is filled with a cubic lattice of subatomic particles, then like a crystal its physical properties should depend on its orientation.

      Good point – That is not likely! In ToS 3.1 I express: “Without a Grid configuration that can be symmetrically repeated, the Grid is believed to consist of slightly curved building blocks of negtrinos in a cubic arrangement. Curved building blocks can form the spherical layers around atoms in the mass generating mechanism (explained later). Such building blocks are also believed to randomize the larger scale alignment of the Grid, so e.g. the speed of light does not vary with the direction in the Grid.“

      Computer simulation of the Grid will learn us more about this.

      Q: However one of the fundamental laws of physics is "Conservation of Angular Momentum" which is aligned with the laws of physics do not change as you change direction. Are you suggesting then, that at least at the quantum level angular momentum is not conserved?

      As per above – but in relation to this: Did you notice that I actually derived F=ma (ToS 5.4.2)? That Newton’s second law is the same as (linear) momentum conservation (Wikipedia explains). "Conservation of Angular Momentum" should also be possible to derive from the single force law in the ToS. In the ToS, electromagnetism (slightly generalized, see ToS 8.2) applies to quantum and below. However, the mechanical laws do not – those are derived with the Grid in place and apply on larger scales.

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  3. Thanks for replying. Regarding the crystalline nature of Space Time, you are saying in your reply there is no long range or even medium range order. Would you then say this structure is more like a poly crystalline material - if so what are happening at the micro-crystal interfaces? Or more like a glass where coherence drops with distance in a smooth, consistent type of way, if it is like a glass then you would you expect dislocations in the lattice and if so what sort of phenomena would that create on the quantum scale or even on things like the speed of light?

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    1. I entered an answer under the Viewer's Q&A page, at http://www.theoryofsomething.com/p/viewers-q.html#Gridstructure2

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  4. Is this accurate?: The energy flows through the grid (the void) that connects all of us and all things in the universe.The void is actually not emptiness but a grid (matrix) consisting of the most basic building blocks - the smallest particles which dimensions are so small (smaller than Planck length) that they can not be directly measured. All of us are just energy packets moving across the grid similar to the images moving across your computer monitor. Bruce Lee: "Whosoever realizes the "void" is filled with life and power and the love of all things."

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    1. Not a bad view, but a Planck’s length 1.6 E-35 m is much smaller than the negtrino (which is about 0.5 fm = 5 E-16 m). Planck’s constant is no constant (it fades away as the universe expands and the dark energy gets more diluted), so I don’t give much relevance to the Planck units.

      But true that you cannot measure things at these scales – What could you measure with?
      Any probe is also made of negtrinos, and detecting a single photon is absorbing it – the rotation itself of a negtrino.

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  5. I can imagine that the N/P universes came about when the balance of the primordial foam was disturbed and this disturbance fractally created the first negritino universe and the first positrino universe. The seeding of the negritino universe by the positrino universe is an "attempt" (for lack of a better term) for recreating the original foam (primordial balance) and this "attempt" is still happening creating new universes at this very moment. Isn't that what life is all about? Seeking oneness and ending up procreating? Is our attraction to the opposite sex and how the things in the universe are attracted to each other(positive matters and negative matters, ying and yang) is a fractal process of just seeking to return to the primordial balance? The ancient ones used spirituality to have reached this conclusion and your scientific theory is converging with theirs.

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    1. I leave my attraction to the opposite sex etc. :) and just comment the “primordial foam”. If the Equation of Everything (ToS 9) and my analyses of it (ToS 8.2.1) is correct – which I believe – then:

      - If that fundamental and only law of physics always has existed – then there was no “primordial”. “Nothing” is unstable and the formation of negtrino/postrino pairs, sorted into positive and negative Grids must have been almost immediate – so theses universes should have existed forever. However, I see a time factor, where the size of negative and positive universes are growing with time. They cannot have emerged with the today’s huge sizes – but there was not an emerging point of time, was it (or maybe)?

      - Only if God wrote down the Equation of Everything at a certain time, there was also a primordial. But what was that? A stable Nothing with no law of physics, no equation at all – No space or time - But what is that?

      - And any “foam” I see as a very short lived state (like after a particle smash in an accelerator) before the Grid and particles are stabilized again. I don’t see any “foam” in a stabilized state.

      So, I would not say that new universes are created at this very moment. My view is that they always existed everywhere and are filling up, or making up all of space - which I think is infinite.

      Not easy to draw definite conclusions, it is.

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    2. In my imagination, oneness (unity) is the primordial balance. Like what you have just stated, it was(and it is - could be) the primordial stable Nothing with no law of Physics, no equation at all. When this oneness became unbalanced, that's when the primordial Negritinos and Postrinos were first sorted out. When Postrinos "attempted" to "mate" with the Negritinos to restore the primordial balance (unity), it started a fractal convulsion by seeding the N universe with energy. Have you studied Professor Benoit Mandelbrot's fractals?

      Eisntein: "Imagination is more important than knowledge." Just keep imagining. I believe your construct of our universe is opening a line of inquiry and contemplation regarding our existence. I am truly thankful to you for that.

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  6. RE: Only if God wrote down the Equation of Everything at a certain time, there was also a primordial. But what was that? A stable Nothing with no law of physics, no equation at all – No space or time - But what is that?

    Space and time only exist if there is something to measure - like distance between two points. If there is only a single point (or Nothing as you describe it)), there is no space and there is no time. But once that single point (Nothing) takes shape or splits up, space and time will exist.

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  7. The energy that kept the primordial Nothing stable is nothing and everything. Have you heard about Ramanujan? And have you read anything about Ramagi, one of the ancient ones? The origin of the universe is both mathematical and spiritual.

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  8. How does someone OUTSIDE the field of quantum mechanics develop a theory that overrides Q.M.? How does someone (who seems to hide their identity)claim to have solved the mysteries of the Universe with no apparent qualifications? If it smells like poo and looks like poo..... it may very well be poo.

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  9. Initial questions are good: For the first I answer:
    - Maybe that was the only way? In today’s time of fashion etc., we humans seem to all run in same direction. The ToS is vastly simpler that QM and answers so much more.
    - For the following question, I refer to my response to you under the Introduction tab.
    - For the poo-question. I’m not Uri Geller with a pen or hiding any facts or doubts. I can only encourage you to read and smell for yourself and ask for other’s reviews – I appreciate real scientist’s review (if they don’t steel any of my poor 3 dimensions and continue seeing tennis rackets http://motls.blogspot.com/2013/01/theory-of-something-qm-has-reached.html) :)

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  10. What is mass?

    I have seen mass described as a fundamental property of an object, but nothing that describes what mass is.

    Observations of the before and after mass of chemical and nuclear reactions show that every particle (proton, neutron, and electron) of every reaction exist both before and after the reaction and that the total mass of every reaction changes in proportion to the change in binding energy.

    Relativistic mass is proportional to the potential energy of the difference in velocities (speed and direction) of two objects.

    Binding and potential energy as mass seems to be such a simple and reasonable explanation of mass that I am surprised not to have seen this explanation anywhere.

    The only other addition needed to complete the explanation would be to explain how the binding energy effects space-time to produce the effect known as mass. Does the binding energy compress or expand space-time? Einstein suggests space-time is compressed, while your theory suggests the opposite. The interesting point is that both describe the same effect.

    James

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